The Authors

Additional Info


Focusing on resource awareness in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) design, Applications of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays in Scientific Research covers the principle of FPGAs and their functionality. It explores a host of applications, ranging from small one-chip laboratory systems to large-scale applications in “big science.”

The book first describes various FPGA resources, including logic elements, RAM, multipliers, microprocessors, and content-addressable memory. It then presents principles and methods for controlling resources, such as process sequencing, location constraints, and intellectual property cores. The remainder of the book illustrates examples of applications in high-energy physics, space, and radiobiology. Throughout the text, the authors remind designers to pay attention to resources at the planning, design, and implementation stages of an FPGA application, in order to reduce the use of limited silicon resources and thereby reduce system cost.

Supplying practical know-how on an array of FPGA application examples, this book provides an accessible overview of the use of FPGAs in data acquisition, signal processing, and transmission. It shows how FPGAs are employed in laboratory applications and how they are flexible, low-cost alternatives to commercial data acquisition systems.


Table of Content
  1. Introduction

What is an FPGA? Digital and analog signal processing FPGA costs FPGA versus ASIC

  1. Understanding FPGA Resources

General-purpose resources Special-purpose resources The company- or family-specific resources

  1. Several Principles and Methods of Resource Usage Control

 Reusing silicon resources by process sequencing Finding algorithms with less computation Using dedicated resources Minimizing supporting resources Remaining in control of the compilers Guideline on pipeline staging Using good libraries

  1. Examples of an FPGA in Daily Design Jobs

LED illumination Simple sequence control with counters Histogram booking Temperature digitization of TMP03/04 devices Silicon serial number (DS2401) readout

  1. The ADC + FPGA Structure

Preparing signals for the ADC Topics on averages Simple digital filters Simple data compression schemes

  1. Examples of FPGA in Front-End Electronics

TDC in an FPGA based on multiple-phase clocks TDC in an FPGA based on delay chains Common timing reference distribution ADC implemented with an FPGA DAC implemented with an FPGA Zero-suppression and time stamp assignment Pipeline versus FIFO Clock-command combined carrier coding (C5) Parasitic event building Digital phase follower Multichannel deserialization

  1. Examples of an FPGA in Advanced Trigger Systems

Trigger primitive creation Unrolling nested-loops, doublet finding Unrolling nested-loops, triplet finding Track fitter

  1. Examples of an FPGA Computation

Pedestal and RMS Centre of gravity method of pulse time calculation Lookup table usage The enclosed loop microsequencer (ELMS)

  1. Radiation Issues

Radiation effects FPGA applications with radiation issues SEE rates Special advantages and vulnerability of FPGAs in space Mitigation of SEU

  1. Time-over-Threshold: The Embedded Particle-Tracking Silicon Microscope (EPTSM)

EPTSM system Time-over-threshold (TOT): analog ASIC PMFE Parallel-to-serial conversion FPGA function




References appear at the end of each chapter.